Doc. no.: P2511R0 2021-12-24 LEWG Zhihao Yuan

# Beyond operator(): NTTP callables in type-erased call wrappers

## Introduction

Non-type template parameters (NTTP) can provide information for call wrappers to erase at compile-time, eliminating the need for binding objects at runtime when fulfilling a simple demand. This paper proposes tweaking type-erased call wrappers, such as std::move_only_function, with NTTP callable objects.

Here is an unfair Tony Table that quickly demonstrates a motivating use case:

 C++11 q.push(std::bind(&DB::connect, std::move(db), _1, _2, _3));  C++14 q.push([db{std::move(db)}] (auto &&... args) mutable { return db.connect(std::forward(args)...); });  C++20 q.push(std::bind_front(&DB::connect, std::move(db)));  q.push([db{std::move(db)}] (T &&... args) mutable { return db.connect(std::forward(args)...); });  P2511 q.emplace(nontype<&DB::connect>, std::move(db)); 

## Motivation

Not all user-defined objects have an operator(). To pass a user-defined object to a parameter of std::move_only_function, one must be able to use that object as

obj(some, args)


But often, the object is designed to be used as

obj.send(some, args)


I want to use such an object with move_only_function as if the type of the object aliased its send member function to operator().

## Analysis

### Why don’t people make their classes callable?

Given sufficient tag types, any member functions can be expressed in one overload set, namely operator(). But we are not in that direction and are not working with constructors – a typical context where the entity to call is anonymous. Naming functions differently is the best way to disambiguate.

When there is no demand for disambiguation, people who design the class can still prefer naming their only member function in the interface “run,” “parse,” and even “apply,” since clearly,

repl.run(line);


repl(line);


### Can we do this with wrapping?

Lambda expression is an option. We can pass a closure object instead of the original object

pack.start([obj{std::move(obj)}] (auto... args) mutable
{
return obj.send(args...);
});


Perfect-forwarding will need more boilerplate

pack.start([obj{std::move(obj)}]
<class ...T>(T &&... args) mutable
{
return obj.send(std::forward<T>(args)...);
});


And don’t forget that we are using obj only as an lvalue in this example. A lambda’s captures are unaware of the value category of the closure object unless using std::forward_like[1] together with an explicit object parameter.

Let’s just say that lambda expression is not suitable for expressing the intention of designating a differently named member function.

And it’s a part of the reason why we have std::bind_front. You can rewrite the example above as

pack.start(std::bind_front(&Cls::send, std::move(obj)));


But bind_front incurs a cost. Sometimes, the space penalty – size of a pointer to member function, is greater than the obj itself. Other than that, the codegen cost is also high.

### Why the ask has to have something to do with type-erasure?

Let’s recall function pointers – the most basic form of type-erasures. You can assign different functions to the same function pointer:

typedef int cmp_t(const char *, const char *);
cmp_t *p = strcmp;
p = strcasecmp;


At first glance, here we did not erase type. The turth is that we erased “nontype” compile-time information – &strcmp and &strcasecmp. In a hypothetical language, every function could be of different types, like what the following piece of legal C++ code shows:

p = [](auto lhs, auto rhs)
{
return string_view(lhs).compare(rhs);
};


There are two ways to understand this:

1. The function pointer erased type T from the closure.
2. C++ offshored the compile-time identity of functions into nontype values.

They are equivalent, as you may get those nontype values back into types anytime:

template<auto V> struct nontype_t {};
static_assert(!is_same_v<nontype_t<strcmp>, nontype_t<strcasecmp>>);


Type erasure is called “type erasure” because it makes code that should depend on different types, not dependent. It wouldn’t be surprising if the code supposed to be dependent were value-dependent. So it seems that a type-erased call wrapper is suitable for erasing the nontype information, &Cls::send, from the expression

obj.send(some, args)


to make the code that uses obj depends on neither &Cls::send nor Cls, where the latter case is what being erased if obj were callable.

## Proposal

This proposal consists of two parts. First, it adds nontype_t and nontype to the <utility> header. They are similar to in_place_type_t and in_place_type, except each of the former two accepts a nontype template parameter with auto rather than type template parameters.

Second, it adds nontype_t<V> to move_only_function’s constructors to allow you to do the following things:

pack.start({nontype<&Cls::send>, std::move(obj)}); // 1
pack.start({nontype<&Cls::send>, &obj});           // 2
pack.start({nontype<&Cls::send>, std::ref(obj)});  // 3


In the first case, the move_only_function parameter owns obj. In the other cases, the parameter holds a reference to obj. This design mirrors the INVOKE protocol when the argument we pass to nontype is a pointer-to-member.

Whether Cls::send is an explicit object member function, case 1 continues to work. Case 3 continues to unwrap reference_wrapper because move_only_function’s converting constructor (F&&) has such a behavior. Case 2 stops working.

This means, if you have a non-member function with a signature like R(Cls, ...), you can use it in place of operator() as well:

pack.start({nontype<send>, obj});


Another constructor converts a single nontype<V> to move_only_function. It is merely a shortcut to initialize from a callable object if we can pass it using a nontype template parameter.

move_only_function<cmp_t> fn = strcmp;
fn = nontype<strcasecmp>;  // new


We propose adding the one-argument and two-argument nontype_t constructors to function_ref[2]. However, no wording is attached in this revision, as P0792’s wording is under an overhaul. So instead, we will briefly describe the semantics here: The two-argument nontype_t constructor overload set holds a reference to obj regardless of whether the user passes it through a reference_wrapper. obj is only used as an lvalue to follow function_ref’s design logic.

The nontype_t<V> parameters are also prepended to move_only_function’s existing in_place_type_t<T> constructors. There is no corresponding change for function_ref.

## Discussion

### How do other programming languages solve this problem?

Java® did not designate a magic method serving operator()'s role. Instead, any interface with a single abstract method is deemed a functional interface. When passing a lambda expression to a parameter of a functional interface, Java produces a closure object that implements this interface. So it doesn’t matter what the method’s name is; it may be void accept(T), R apply(T), etc. But you don’t have to use a lambda if your obj doesn’t implement the functional interface. Method references are a more straightforward way to produce a closure object. For example, obj::consume can make a closure object supporting the accept method.

Python designates __call__ to be the magic method to make an object callable. If you want to call a different method to fulfill the typing.Callable requirement, you may pass a bound method like obj.send. A method in Python has a __self__ attribute to store the class instance.

C♯, similar to Java, doesn’t support overloading the call operator. However, its delegate language facility allows quickly defining a functional interface. Unlike Java, you cannot “implement” a delegate, so you must create delegate objects using a syntax similar to Python’s bound methods.

In a parallel universe, C++ with C++0x Concepts provides concept maps as a general mechanism for adapting a de facto interface to be used in a component that expects a common, but different interface. Here, to enable type Cls for being used in move_only_function, we can specify a mapping using Richard’s generalized alias declaration[3]:

template<class... Args>
concept_map invocable<Cls, Args...>
{
using operator() = Cls::send;
};


To make this adaptation local to the users’ code, they can define the concept_map in their own namespace.[4]

### Why this proposal is different from delegates and other solutions?

The solution given by concept maps has the right model. But invocable is not only a concept. It is centralized in a programming paradigm. That might be why the other solutions widely used in practice allow forming the adaptations that are different from use to use.

The rest of the solutions, such as delegates, are all language features that work only with member functions.

However, in C++, until C++20, functional interface means std::function. There are also packaged_task, folly::Function, llvm::function_ref… There is no generic functional interface that fits all needs.

We are proposing a framework for enabling designating a different operator() when initializing any functional interface in C++. A third-party library can also add nontype_t<V> to their type-erased call wrappers’ constructor overload sets. The V they accept may be more permissive or restrictive, the storage policy they chose may be adaptive or pooled, but the end-users can enjoy expressing the same idea using the same syntax.

And a C++ class’s interface consists not only of member functions. The NTTP callable, V, can be a pointer to explicit object member function – in other words, you can treat a free function as that member function. You can even rewrite that obj’s call operator with another structural object with an operator():

nontype<[](Cls) { runtime_work(); }>


The proposed solution supports all these to satisfy users’ expectations for C++.

### Should we add those constructors to all type-erased call wrappers?

I.e., std::function and packaged_task.

move_only_function and function_ref mean to replace std::function. std::function did not add move_only_function’s in_place_type_t<T> constructors even though that does not break ABI. These leave the author an impression that we are not further polishing std::function.

The typical uses of packaged_task do not seem to value codegen high enough to justify adding the nontype_t<V> constructors.

### Should type-passing call wrappers support NTTP callables?

Strictly speaking, they are outside the scope of this paper. But some type-passing call wrappers that require factory functions have an attractive syntax when accepting NTTP callables – you can pass them in function templates’ template-argument-list. So let me break down the typical ones: bind_front<V>, not_fn<V>(), and mem_fn<V>().

Supporting bind_front<&Cls::send>(obj) eliminates the space penalty of bind_front(&Cls::send, obj). But, please be aware that if bind_front appears alone, the compiler has no pressure optimizing type-passing code. Hence, the new form only makes sense if a type-erasure later erases the underlying wrapper object. But a type-erased call wrapper already requires wrapping the target object. This double-wrapping downgrades the usability of those call wrappers:

1. One cannot in-place constructs obj in an owning call wrapper bypassing bind_front;
2. One must write bind_front<&Cls::send>(std::ref(obj)) to archive reference semantics even if this expression is about to initialize a function_ref, defeating half of the purpose of function_ref.

The need of type-erasing a predicate such as not_fn(p) seems rare. STL algorithms that take predicates have a type-passing interface.

Rather than overloading mem_fn to take NTTP callables, adding an operator() to nontype_t will have the same, or arguably better, effect:

std::transform(begin(v), end(v), it, nontype<&Cls::pmd>);


However, it seems that the uses of std::mem_fn largely diminished after introducing std::invoke. Therefore, the author decides not to complicate nontype_t in this revision of the paper.

### Can some form of lambda solve the problem?

The previous discussion (1, 2) revealed how large the design space is and how the problem ties to the library. This section will use a specific paper in the past as an example to show how these factors can affect language design.

There have been discussions about whether C++ should have expression lambda[5]

priority_queue pq([][&1.id() < &2.id()], input);


to make lambda terse. Expression lambdas aim to address the difficulty of introducing parameters. But in our motivating example, we forwarded all parameters without introducing any. So expression lambda doesn’t directly respond to the problem.

So the ask will need to expand the scope of lambda to “anything that can produce an anonymous closure object.” It is reasonable as other languages have similar sugars. For example, Java’s method references and lambda expressions share VM mechanisms.[6]

In that case, let’s prototype the ask: Why don’t we write the following and make everything work?

q.push_back(db.connect);


Recall that q is a container of std::move_only_function from Introduction, so the first question will be what db.connect means. Luckily, Andrew Sutton had an answer to that in 2016.[7] Here is an example from his paper:

struct S
{
void f(int&);
void f(std::string&);
};

S s;
std::transform(first, last, s.f);


s.f produces (applied minor corrections):

[&s] <class... Args>(Args&&... args)
-> decltype(s.f(std::forward<Args>(args)...))
{
return s.f(std::forward<Args>(args)...);
}


The above suggests that, in our example, db.connect captures db by reference.

But move_only_function is supposed have a unique copy of db! In the motivating example, we std::move(db) into an element of q. So maybe s should mean “capture by value” in s.f, and we write std::move(db).connect?

Assume it is the case. What happens if there is another function retry taking function_ref:

retry(db.connect);  // a few times


Given the modified semantics, the above should mean “capture db by making a copy, and pass the closure by reference using function_ref.” Which is, of course, not satisfying. std::ref(db) won’t help this time, so let’s go with

retry((&db)->connect);  // a few times


Now db.connect and (&db)->connect have different meanings. This implies that if we had a pointer to db,

auto p = &db;


(*p).connect and p->connect will have different meanings. This goes against the common expectation on C++ ([over.call.func]/2):

[…] the construct A->B is generally equivalent to (*A).B

Let’s take another angle. Instead of moving db, what if we want to construct an object of DB in the new element in place?

It’s simple using a nontype constructor. We only need to go from

q.emplace(nontype<&DB::connect>, std::move(db));


to

q.emplace(nontype<&DB::connect>,
std::in_place_type<DB>, "example.db", 100ms, true);


I don’t know of a solution that involves capturing. DB("example.db", 100ms, true).connect will result in moving a subobject along with the closure. And more importantly, it requires DB to be movable, which adds more to move_only_function’s minimal requirements.

It seems that C++ lambdas are not only verbose to introduce parameters but also tricky to capture variables. A solution that couples naming a different id-expression after . operator with captures will face problems when working with varying type-erased call wrappers.

But if expression lambda solves the problem of introducing parameters, can we replace the problems caused by capturing variables with the problem we solved?

q.emplace(nontype<[][&1::connect]>, std::move(db));


This WORKS. A captureless lambda is of a structral type. It solves the problem of selecting a particular overload or specialization when connect is an overload set. In Andrew’s example,

struct S
{
void f(int&);
void f(std::string&);
};


Right now, to select the first overload, we have to write nontype<(void (S::*)(int&))&S::f>; with an expression lambda, it’s as simple as nontype<[][&1.f]>.

As long as we decoupled naming from wrapping, a language design can relieve itself from making every library happy with a single type-passing language feature that does wrapping for you. In that situation, the library additions and the language additions can evolve in parallel and work together in the end.

### Can this proposal target post-C++23?

Suppose all implementations of std::move_only_function are prepared for this to come, yes. A naïve implementation that uses vtable can later add value-dependent subtypes without breaking ABI; others need to be careful.

On the other hand, the nontype_t<V> constructors allow the users to bind implicit or explicit object member functions with the same cost. So it is reasonable to ship them in the same standard that ships std::move_only_function and “deducing this.”[8]

## Prior Art

The earliest attempt to bind an object with a member function I can find is Rich Hickey’s “Callbacks in C++ Using Template Functors”[9] back in 1994.

Borland C++ has a language extension – the __closure keyword.[10] It is very similar to the hypothetical __bound keyword in Rich’s article. However, you may not delete a pointer to closure or initialize it with a function.

This proposal is inspired by P2472[11].

## Wording

The wording is relative to N4901.

Add new templates to 20.2.1 [utility.syn], header <utility> synopsis:

namespace std {
[...]

template<size_t I>
struct in_place_index_t {
explicit in_place_index_t() = default;
};

template<size_t I> inline constexpr in_place_index_t<I> in_place_index{};

// nontype argument tag
template<auto V>
struct nontype_t {
explicit nontype_t() = default;
};

template<auto V> inline constexpr nontype_t<V> nontype{};
}


Add a definition to 20.14.3 [func.def]:

[…]

A target object is the callable object held by a call wrapper.

A constant target object is a target object of a structural type [temp.param].

A call wrapper type may additionally hold […]

Modify 20.14.17.4.3 [func.wrap.move.ctor] as indicated:

template<class... T>
static constexpr bool is-invocable-using = see below;


If noex is true, is-invocable-using<T...> is equal to:

is_nothrow_invocable_r_v<R, T..., ArgTypes...>

Otherwise, is-invocable-using<T...> is equal to:

is_invocable_r_v<R, T..., ArgTypes...>

template<class VT>
static constexpr bool is-callable-from = see below;


If noex is true, is-callable-from<VT> is equal to:

is_nothrow_invocable_r_v<R, VT cv ref, ArgTypes…> &&
is_nothrow_invocable_r_v<R, VT inv-quals, ArgTypes…>

Otherwise,  is-callable-from<VT> is equal to:

is-invocable-using<VT cv ref> &&
is-invocable-using<VT inv-quals>
is_invocable_r_v<R, VT cv ref, ArgTypes…> &&
is_invocable_r_v<R, VT inv-quals, ArgTypes…>

template<auto f, class T>
static constexpr bool is-callable-as-if-from = see below;


is-callable-as-if-from<f, VT> is equal to:

is-invocable-using<decltype(f), VT cv ref> &&
is-invocable-using<decltype(f), VT inv-quals>

move_only_function() noexcept;
move_only_function(nullptr_t) noexcept;


Postconditions: *this has no target objectstate entity.

move_only_function(move_only_function&& f) noexcept;


Postconditions: The target objectstate entities of *this isare the target objectstate entities f had before construction, and f is in a valid state with an unspecified value.

template<auto f> move_only_function(nontype_t<f>) noexcept;


Constraints: is-invocable-using<decltype(f)> is true.

Postconditions: *this has no state entity if f is a null function pointer value or a null member pointer value. Otherwise, *this has a constant target object. Such an object and f are template-argument-equivalent [temp.type].

template<class F> move_only_function(F&& f);


Let VT be decay_t<F>.

Constraints:

• remove_cvref_t<F> is not the same type as move_only_function, and
• remove_cvref_t<F> is not a specialization of in_place_type_t, and
• is-callable-from<F> is true.

Mandates: is_constructible_v<VT, F> is true.

Preconditions: VT meets the Cpp17Destructible requirements, and if is_move_constructible_v<VT> is true, VT meets the Cpp17MoveConstructible requirements.

Postconditions: *this has no target objectstate entity if any of the following hold:

• f is a null function pointer value, or
• f is a null member pointer value, or
• remove_cvref_t<F> is a specialization of the move_only_function class template, and f has no target objectstate entity.

Otherwise, *this has a target object of type VT direct-non-list-initialized with std::forward<F>(f).

Throws: Any exception thrown by the initialization of the target object. May throw bad_alloc unless VT is a function pointer or a specialization of reference_wrapper.

template<auto f, class T> move_only_function(nontype_t<f>, T&& x);


Let VT be decay_t<T>.

Constraints: is-callable-as-if-from<f, VT> is true.

Mandates: is_constructible_v<VT, T> is true.

Preconditions: VT meets the Cpp17Destructible requirements, and if is_move_constructible_v<VT> is true, VT meets the Cpp17MoveConstructible requirements.

Postconditions: *this has no state entity if f is a null function pointer value or a null member pointer value. Otherwise, *this has the following properties:

• Its constant target object and f are template-argument-equivalent [temp.type].
• It has one bound argument entity, an object of type VT direct-non-list-initialized with std::forward<T>(x).

Throws: Any exception thrown by the initialization of the bound argument. May throw bad_alloc unless

• VT is a specialization of reference_wrapper, or
• VT is an object pointer and f is of a pointer to member.
template<class T, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(in_place_type_t<T>, Args&&... args);


[…]

template<class T, class U, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(in_place_type_t<T>, initializer_list<U> ilist, Args&&... args);


[…]

template<auto f, class T, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(
nontype_t<f>,
in_place_type_t<T>,
Args&&... args);


Let VT be decay_t<T>.

Constraints:

• is_constructible_v<VT, ArgTypes...> is true, and
• is-callable-as-if-from<f, VT> is true.

Mandates: VT is the same type as T.

Preconditions: VT meets the Cpp17Destructible requirements, and if is_move_constructible_v<VT> is true, VT meets the Cpp17MoveConstructible requirements.

Postconditions: *this has no state entity if f is a null function pointer value or a null member pointer value. Otherwise, *this has the following properties:

• Its constant target object and f are template-argument-equivalent [temp.type].
• It has one bound argument entity, an object of type VT direct-non-list-initialized with std::forward<T>(x)....

Throws: Any exception thrown by the initialization of the bound argument. May throw bad_alloc unless

• VT is a specialization of reference_wrapper, or
• VT is an object pointer and f is of a pointer to member.
template<auto f, class T, class U, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(
nontype_t<f>,
in_place_type_t<T>,
initializer_list<U> ilist,
Args&&... args);


Let VT be decay_t<T>.

Constraints:

• is_constructible_v<VT, initializer_list<U>&, ArgTypes...> is true, and
• is-callable-as-if-from<f, VT> is true.

Mandates: VT is the same type as T.

Preconditions: VT meets the Cpp17Destructible requirements, and if is_move_constructible_v<VT> is true, VT meets the Cpp17MoveConstructible requirements.

Postconditions: *this has no state entity if f is a null function pointer value or a null member pointer value. Otherwise, *this has the following properties:

• Its constant target object and f are template-argument-equivalent [temp.type].
• It has one bound argument entity, an object of type VT direct-non-list-initialized with ilist, std::forward<T>(x)....

Throws: Any exception thrown by the initialization of the bound argument. May throw bad_alloc unless

• VT is a specialization of reference_wrapper, or
• VT is an object pointer and f is of a pointer to member.
move_only_function& operator=(move_only_function&& f);


[…]

move_only_function& operator=(nullptr_t) noexcept;


Effects: Destroys the target objectstate entities of *this, if any.

Postconditions: *this has no state entity.

Returns: *this.

template<class F> move_only_function& operator=(F&& f);


Effects: Equivalent to: move_only_function(std::forward<F>(f)).swap(*this);

Returns: *this.

~move_only_function();


Effects: Destroys the target objectstate entities of *this, if any.

Modify 20.14.17.4.4 [func.wrap.move.inv] as indicated:

explicit operator bool() const noexcept;


Returns: true if *this has a target objectany state entity, otherwise false.

R operator()(ArgTypes... args) cv ref noexcept(noex);


Preconditions: *this has a target object.

Effects: Equivalent to:Let f be an lvalue designating the target object of *this and F be the type of f.

• If *this has a bound argument, equivalent to

return INVOKE<R>(f, static_cast<T inv-quals>(x), std::forward<ArgTypes>(args)...);

where x is an lvalue designating the bound argument of type T.

• Otherwise, if *this has a constant target object, equivalent to

return INVOKE<R>(f, std::forward<ArgTypes>(args)...);

• Otherwise, equivalent to

return INVOKE<R>(static_cast<F inv-quals>(f), std::forward<ArgTypes>(args)...);

where f is an lvalue designating the target object of *this and F is the type of f.

Modify 20.14.17.4.5 [func.wrap.move.util] as indicated:

void swap(move_only_function& other) noexcept;


Effects: Exchanges the target objectsstate entities of *this and other.

friend void swap(move_only_function& f1, move_only_function& f2) noexcept;


Effects: Equivalent to f1.swap(f2).

friend bool operator==(const move_only_function& f, nullptr_t) noexcept;


Returns: true if f has no target objectstate entity, otherwise false.

Add new signatures to [func.wrap.move.class] synopsis:

[…]

  template<class R, class... ArgTypes>
class move_only_function<R(ArgTypes...) cv ref noexcept(noex)> {
public:
using result_type = R;

// [func.wrap.move.ctor], constructors, assignment, and destructor
move_only_function() noexcept;
move_only_function(nullptr_t) noexcept;
move_only_function(move_only_function&&) noexcept;
template<auto f> move_only_function(nontype_t<f>) noexcept;
template<class F> move_only_function(F&&);
template<auto f, class T> move_only_function(nontype_t<f>, T&&);
template<class T, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(in_place_type_t<T>, Args&&...);
template<class T, class U, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(in_place_type_t<T>, initializer_list<U>, Args&&...);
template<auto f, class T, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(
nontype_t<f>,
in_place_type_t<T>,
Args&&...);
template<auto f, class T, class U, class... Args>
explicit move_only_function(
nontype_t<f>,
in_place_type_t<T>,
initializer_list<U>,
Args&&...);

move_only_function& operator=(move_only_function&&);
move_only_function& operator=(nullptr_t) noexcept;
template<class F> move_only_function& operator=(F&&);

~move_only_function();

// [func.wrap.move.inv], invocation
explicit operator bool() const noexcept;
R operator()(ArgTypes...) cv ref noexcept(noex);

// [func.wrap.move.util], utility
void swap(move_only_function&) noexcept;
friend void swap(move_only_function&, move_only_function&) noexcept;
friend bool operator==(const move_only_function&, nullptr_t) noexcept;

private:
template<class... T>
static constexpr bool is-invocable-using = see below;     // exposition only
template<class VT>
static constexpr bool is-callable-from = see below;       // exposition only
template<auto f, class T>
static constexpr bool is-callable-as-if-from = see below; // exposition only
};
}


[Drafting note: Missing wording for function_ref. –end note]

## Implementation Experience

Here is an implementation of function_ref with the nontype_t<V> constructors; you may play with it in Godbolt. An implementation on move_only_function will also create value-dependent forwarders but allocated in a small object optimization buffer or free store.

## Acknowledgments

Thank Ryan McDougall for proofreading the paper.

## References

1. Ažman, Gašper. P2445R0 std::forward_like. http://wg21.link/p2445r0 ↩︎

2. Romeo, Vittorio. P0792R5 function_ref: a non-owning reference to a Callable. http://wg21.link/p0792r5 ↩︎

3. Smith, Richard. P0945R0 Generalizing alias declarations. http://wg21.link/p0945r0 ↩︎

4. Siek, Jeremy. N2098 Scoped Concept Maps. http://wg21.link/n2098 ↩︎

5. Revzin, Barry. Why were abbrev. lambdas rejected? https://brevzin.github.io/c++/2020/01/15/abbrev-lambdas/ ↩︎

6. Goetz, Brian. Translation of Lambda Expressions . https://cr.openjdk.java.net/~briangoetz/lambda/lambda-translation.html ↩︎